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從“德育”到“育德”
2019-01-31 00:02:51 來源:河北德育網 瀏覽:581

北京市朝陽區人民政府教育督導室主任  王世元

教育的本質,就是通過知識、體驗等載體,讓學生獲得知識、方法、能力的過程。因此課堂教學,不只是教知識,而是讓學生獲得解決實際問題、獲取認識世界的能力。

長征,是我國歷史上紅軍給現代教育提供的生動的教材。芳草地國際學校抓住了這個難得的教材,并圍繞該主題進行了精心的課程設計。語文教師和音樂教師打破了慣用的40分鐘,而是用一個小時的時間,合作展現了《長征組歌之過雪山草地》主題課程,在老師的遞進式提問引導下,學生展開了合作探討。

在這個課堂上,老師們不是單方面的傳授知識,而是教會學生學習的方法,讓學生通過小組討論匯報、朗誦、表演等形式將語文、地理、歷史、數學、音樂等多個學科融入課堂教學中。課上,孩子們展示了許多自己從網上下載、從博物館拍來的照片。在這個過程中,他們從小就要學會解鎖、收集、分類處理問題的能力,這是一件非常了不起的事情。而且,通過這一系列過程的參與,每個孩子們都有所收獲。在這樣一個過程當中,孩子們又突出了強化、自我教育的過程,從而提高了自我,實現了自我教育。

從學科角度來看,這個綜合課程非常明確地體現了語文、數學、歷史、地理、音樂等多個學科的元素,讓孩子們在學習的過程中,擁有了知識的獲得感。

譬如,將語文、音樂整合在一起,語文詩歌課講完之后,音樂課作為結束,這樣不僅讓學生學會了詩歌表達、小說表達、數學表達、音樂表達的技巧,還能給學生一個強大的內醒教育,讓孩子們了解不同的表達方式,而且不同的方式有著不同的表達意蘊。

除此之外,這個綜合性的課程還有育德的功能,而不是德育。即培養了孩子們堅強的意志、品質和情感的追求。譬如,讓孩子通過音樂來感知長征精神。因為音樂也是一種語言,是通過節奏、速度、強度、重復,對情感的表達,因此它既不同于語言、數學的表達,也不同于科學的表達,有自己獨特的表達方式。而且,音樂課上強化了工具意識,老師用兩種不同的樂器演奏,給孩子們帶來了不同的效果。特別打動我的是,音樂老師帶領孩子們進行合唱之后,匠心獨運地把歌詞去掉,用鋼琴演奏,讓孩子們用耳朵聽、用心靈感,體會有歌詞和沒歌詞所帶來的別樣的震撼,提高了生命個體對音樂藝術的審美欣賞能力。

教師的教法也處處體現對學生靈性的尊重,對人格的尊重。孩子們收集的資料不同,展現的方式不同,而教師沒就某一個知識點進行強化,而是從不同的角度對孩子進行鼓勵和肯定。因為,每個孩子的靈性不一樣,聰明程度不一樣,個性愛好不一樣,但每個人的個性都被得到尊重。所以,在師生內心實踐方法的交互中,讓孩子們在課堂上有一種美的享受。

所以,我們不要簡單地“就德育做德育”,而要把德育融合在課程整合當中,通過課程的深度整合,從而達到立德樹人、減負提質的教育效果。

 
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